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In the 75 largest counties order nicotinell 35mg online, 49 percent of felony drug defendants are non-Hispanic blacks and 26 percent are non- Hispanic whites (Cohen and Kyckelhahn 2010) 17.5mg nicotinell visa. Incarceration The racial disparity evident in drug arrests increases as cases wend their way through the criminal justice system discount nicotinell 35 mg line. Black defendants constitute 44 percent and white defendants 55 percent of persons convicted of drug felonies in state courts buy discount nicotinell 52.5 mg on-line. Among defendants convicted of drug felonies cheap nicotinell 35 mg with mastercard, 61 percent of whites and 70 percent of blacks are sentenced to incarceration. Whites sentenced to incarceration for drug felonies received a mean maximum sentence length of 29 months, compared with 34 months for blacks (Durose, Farole, and Rosenmerkel 2009). As Table 3 shows, the number of African Americans admitted to state prison as new court commitments on drug charges has consistently exceeded the number of whites during the past 10 years. Subscriber: Univ of Minnesota - Twin Cities; date: 23 October 2013 Race and Drugs Table 3 State Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses by Race, 2000–2009 White Black Other* 2000 28,784 49,714 723 2001 29,704 49,798 797 2002 33,777 52,275 869 2003 34,958 49,285 876 2004 34,377 42,859 879 2005 40,707 43,251 1,024 2006 40,519 45,217 1,079 2007 35,364 45,174 1,084 2008 32,459 43,259 1,036 2009 31,380 40,790 828 (*) Includes some persons of Hispanic origin; however, there are additional persons of Hispanic origin who are new court commitments who were not categorized as to race and who are not included in these figures. Human Rights Watch calculated that the black rate of new court prison commitments on drug charges in 2003 was 10 times greater than the white rate. Among the 97,239 federal prisoners serving time for drug offenses at the end of 2009, 43. For most serious crimes, arrest and victimization survey data provide useful—although incomplete—information on the demographics of criminal offending (Like-Haislip, in this volume). Arrests primarily reflect geographic deployment of police personnel and law enforcement priorities. The principal source of national data on drug offenders comes from national surveys and self-report studies. National youth surveys have also included questions on drug offending that yield useful information. The available data leave little doubt that racial differences in drug offending do not account for the stark racial disparities in arrests and incarceration. Decades of arrest and incarceration have apparently had little impact on the use of illicit drugs. Subscriber: Univ of Minnesota - Twin Cities; date: 23 October 2013 Race and Drugs possession offenses, and those data suggest that far more whites than blacks illegally possess drugs. Click to view larger Figure 2 Percentage by Race of Illicit Drug Use in Lifetime, Past Year, and Past Month Among Persons Aged 12 and Over Note: Total includes all users regardless of race or ethnicity. But because the white population in the United States is substantially greater than the black, comparable rates of drug use result in far4 greater numbers of white users. As Figure 3 shows, for example, slightly more than six times as many whites (86,537,000) report having used drugs in their lives as blacks (13,629,000). Click to view larger Figure 4 Percentage by Race of Illicit Drug Use Among Persons Aged 12 and Over in the Past Month, by Type of Drug Note: “white” and “black” categories do not include people of Hispanic ethnicity. Click to view larger Figure 5 Illicit Drug Use by Persons Aged 12 and Over in Past Month by Race and Drug Type, Numbers in Thousands Note: “white” and “black” categories do not include people of Hispanic ethnicity. Subscriber: Univ of Minnesota - Twin Cities; date: 23 October 2013 Race and Drugs Figure 4 shows that rates of drug use by type of drug do not substantially differ for whites, blacks, and Hispanics. African Americans rates are somewhat higher than whites’ for the listed drugs except prescription drugs, but because of the different sizes of the black and white populations, the numbers of white users for every drug greatly exceed those for black users, as Figure 5 shows. The most heavily used drug is marijuana; the number of white marijuana users was more than four times the number of black users. Prescription drugs are the second most prevalent type of illicit drug use: among persons reporting using them in the preceding month, 5,145,000 were white and 602,000 were black. Click to view larger Figure 6 Percentage by Race of Users of Crack Cocaine Among Persons Aged 12 and Over, Numbers in Thousands Note: “white” and “black” categories do not include people of Hispanic ethnicity. As Figures 6 and 7 show, crack has been used by relatively few persons of either race relative to other drugs. The percentages of blacks who report crack use in their lifetime is low, particularly when compared with other drugs. The percentages of blacks reporting crack use exceeds those for whites in each reference period, but the much larger size of the white population means that a far greater number of whites than blacks have used crack.

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Take a leadership initiative in genomic literacy by investing in genomic education for key staff buy nicotinell 35 mg line. Attract the best people in genomics to raise the innovation bar for your organiza- tion and/or healthcare region purchase 52.5 mg nicotinell overnight delivery. Prepare for the intensely ethical quality nicotinell 17.5 mg, legal and socio-economic impact of genomics on healthcare purchase nicotinell 17.5 mg with mastercard. Include genomics in chronic disease management and health and wellness strate- gies and discussions generic 52.5mg nicotinell visa. Adopt sound privacy and security policies and controls (and build staff and consumer awareness of the privacy risks/threat) that can withstand the personal- ized nature of genomics data. He placed bioethics and health care policy within an innovative vision of the phi- losophy of medicine. He recognized that one cannot rightly appreciate the medical humanities, bioethics, the philosophy of medical law, and medical-moral theology unless one also understands the core of the phi- losophy of medicine: the internal morality and the telos of medicine. Pel- legrino’s work compasses important explorations of the healing relation- ship, medicine as a profession, the patient’s good, the role of autonomy, the place of money, and the importance of a virtue-based normative ethics for health care. His work is important in its own right and because of the infuence it has had and continues to have on the philosophy of medicine and bio- ethics. This collection integrates essays scattered among various journals spanning a period of over a quarter of a century. This Pellegrino Reader provides insight into the emergence of a feld, as well as analyses of issues, including the defnition of the philosophy of medi- cine, the role of humanism in medicine, and the place of a virtue ethics in medi cine. The essays explore the philosophy of medicine, the medical humani- ties, and bioethics. Pellegrino’s work has been dedicated to showing that bioethics cannot be understood out- side of the context of the medical humanities, and that the medical hu- manities cannot be understood outside of the context of the philosophy of medicine. Pellegrino correctly appreciates that bioethics should not be narrowly restricted to the usual fare of topics, ranging from abortion, third-party-assisted reproduction, physician-assisted suicide, and eutha- nasia, to genetic engineering, cloning, organ sales, and the allocation of medical resources. He appreciates that all of these issues are shaped by foundational views regarding the nature of the physician-patient relation- ship and the goals of medicine, all of which are the proper focus of the philosophy of medicine. Autonomy, benefcence, non-malefcence, justice, solidarity, property rights, and vulnerability are set within a conceptual and value scafolding that has structured medicine for millennia: medicine’s dedication to the good of the patient. Pellegrino takes seriously medicine as a practice that carries with it its own teleological commitments, internal morality, pre- suppositions regarding the nature and signifcance of the physician/ patient relationship, views concerning the nature of the virtuous physician, and the prerequisites for human fourishing. Because of the implicit role played by understandings of human fourishing, of what it is as a human to live properly and fully, the medical humanities are essential to locating and giving content to bioethics. That is, a particular bioethics presupposes a particular understanding of that which is truly human, the core notion of the humanities. One’s view of what is normatively human, of what con- stitutes the humanum, lies at the roots of culture and morality. Concerns with the humanities bring together an interest in that which is most truly © 2008 University of Notre Dame Press An Introduction human (i. Because this area of scholarship discloses the hidden con-1 tent and implicit presuppositions of bioethics, a bioethics is not under- standable apart from the medical humanities. The humanities disclose the implicit assumptions regarding human fourishing that supply the taken- for-granted content of the ethics at the roots of bioethics. Yet, the medical humanities themselves remain conceptually under- determined and lack a critical self-consciousness absent the philosophy of medicine connecting them to the internal morality of medicine. This is to recognize that philosophy is not just one among the humanities, but the cardinal element of the humanities. Were it not for philosophy’s critical refection on the internal goals of medicine, the place and the signifcance of the other humanities would remain unarticulated. Hence, the role of the philosophy of medicine in laying out what is involved in human vul- nerability and in the limits to human fourishing. All this has been under- stood by Pellegrino and is refected in the essays collected in this volume. The essays ofer the reader an opportunity to relocate the usual concerns of bioethics in terms of neglected, cardinal themes bearing on founda- tional concepts in virtue ethics and the philosophy of medicine. The Third Humanism and the Medical Humanities: The Significance of Pellegrino’s Work The essays in this volume are important in their own right: they are substantive contributions to the philosophy of medicine, medical human- ities, and bioethics. They are also important in refecting the work of a fg- ure who made the medical humanities and bioethics possible. Along with Daniel Callahan, the founder of the Hastings Center, and André Hellegers, the frst director of the Kennedy Institute, Edmund Pellegrino, through his work with the Institute on Human Values in Medicine and the Society for Health and Human Values, supported the development of medical hu- manities programs in medical schools across the United States.

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