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By M. Zapotek. University of Texas Medical Branch. 2018.

X Check on submission guidelines – produce an article in the correct style and format and of the right length order hydroxyzine 10mg with amex. X Read several copies of the journal to get an idea about the preferences of editors cheap 25mg hydroxyzine with amex. X If you are thinking about writing for a trade publica- tion buy 25 mg hydroxyzine with mastercard, approach the editors by letter cheap 10mg hydroxyzine fast delivery, asking if they might be interested in an article order hydroxyzine 25 mg overnight delivery. X Produce a succinct, clear, interesting and well-written article – ask friends, tutors or colleagues to read it and provide comments. X Make sure there are no mistakes, remembering to check the bibliography. X If it is your first article, gain advice from someone who has had work published. Also you might find it easier to write an article with someone else – some tutors or HOW TO REPORT YOUR FINDINGS/ 141 supervisors will be willing to do this as it helps their publication record if their name appears on another article. You may find that you will do most of the work, but it is very useful to have someone read your article and change sections which do not work or read well. It is also useful to have people comment on your methodology or analysis assumptions which could be criticised by other researchers. ORAL PRESENTATIONS Another method of presenting your research findings is through an oral presentation. This may be at a university or college to other students or tutors, at a conference to other researchers or work colleagues, or in a work place to colleagues, employers or funding bodies. Many re- searchers find that it is better to provide both a written report and an oral presentation as this is the most effective way of enabling a wider audience to find out about the re- search, especially if you also reproduce your written re- port on-line. If you want people to take notice of your results, you need to produce a good presentation. PowerPoint is a useful presentation graphics program which enables you to create slides that can be shared live or on-line. You can enhance your presentation with ani- mation, artwork and diagrams which make it more inter- esting for your audience. Acknowledge that this is your first Everybody gets nervous when they presentation and people will tend to first start giving presentations and help you along. Produce aide memoirs, either on Read straight from a paper you have cards, paper, OHP transparencies or written. Make it clear from the outset Get cross if you are interrupted and whether you are happy to be have not mentioned that you don’t interrupted or whether questions want this to happen. If you have and then do not answer them or invited questions, make sure you patronise the inquirer. Look around the room while you are Look at your notes, never raising speaking – if it’s a small group, make your head. Present interesting visual Produce visual information which information such as graphs, charts people can’t see, either due to its size and tables in a format which can be or print quality. Alter the tone and pitch of your Present in a monotone voice with no voice, length of sentence and facial/ facial/hand gestures. Make it clear hand gestures to maintain audience that your subject bores the pants off interest. Produce a paper or handout which Let the audience go home without people can take away with them. HOW TO REPORT YOUR FINDINGS/ 143 SUMMARY X There are three main ways of reporting your findings: written reports, journal articles and oral presentations. X Before starting your research, find out whether you are going to be restricted by structure, style and content of your final report. X A traditional written report includes the following: – title page – contents page – list of illustrations – acknowledgements – abstract/summary – introduction – background – methodology/methods – findings/analysis – conclusions – recommendations – further research – references – bibliography – appendices. X If you are interested in writing an article for a journal, do your market research. Make sure that the subject matter, style, structure and length of your article suit the journal. X Try to seek advice and comments from people experi- enced in writing journal articles. If you were to do so, your work would reach a wider audience than it might do otherwise. Arrive early, make sure equipment works and that you have everything you need. X Show that you are interested in what you are saying and try to keep audience interest by using visual aids and altering tone, pitch and gestures.

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After joining and adverse changes in the acidity or alkalinity of the envi- the faculty generic hydroxyzine 25 mg with mastercard, he became the first head of the Bacteriology ronment surrounding the microorganisms buy discount hydroxyzine 25 mg on line. He remained head until his retirement in Blood is an example of a natural buffer discount hydroxyzine 10 mg otc. He was also the first dean of Industrial Science buy cheap hydroxyzine 10mg on line, first volumes of an acid or base solution can greatly change the pH dean of the Graduate College (1919–1948) buy hydroxyzine 10 mg amex, and was Director (measure of the hydrogen ion concentration). Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, and to In order to explain the properties of a buffer, it is useful assume the responsibilities of co-editor of the eighth edition of to consider a specific example, the acetic acid/acetate buffer the manual in 1974. Buchanan was also one of this buffer, the added hydronium ion (H+) reacts with the the founders of the International Bulletin of Bacterial strongest base in the medium, namely the acetate ion, to form Nomenclature and Taxonomy in 1951. This reaction uses up the added hydronium editorial board of the journal. The journal is still published, ion, preventing the pH from rising drastically, and is responsi- now as the International Journal of Systematic and ble for the buffering effect. The solution acts as a buffer the process of expansion by adding a branch that represented because nearly all of the added hydronium ion is consumed by bacteriologists in Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South reaction with acetate. Buchanan became the first President increases, the acetate concentration and acetic acid concentra- of the Northwest Branch of the Society in 1935. The pH changes slightly to reflect the shift in Buchanan also founded the Iowa State Journal of the concentrations, but the change is much smaller than in the Science in 1926. The journal was intended as a forum for the absence of the buffer because most of the added acid is con- rapid publication of research papers that were too lengthy for publication in other scientific journals. This example of an works from the biological and agricultural sciences and, in acetic acid/acetate ion buffer is typical of other buffer systems. The journal ceased publi- Buffers are vitally important in living prokaryotic and cation in 1988. The rates of various biochemical reactions Another landmark publication of Buchanan was in are very sensitive to the availability of hydronium ions. Then, he published an essay listing the correct Latin biochemical reactions (e. This article has proven vital to several gener- An important buffer in the blood is the bicarbonate ion ations of bacterial taxonomists. The Buchanan was also active in other international agen- acidity or alkalinity of the blood can be altered by the inges- cies, including the National Research Council, Inter-American tion of acidic or basic substances. The carbonate/bicarbonate 95 Burnet, Frank Macfarlane WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY buffer system compensates for such additions and maintains MacKay. As a child, Burnet developed an interest in nature, the pH within the required range. He carried over This buffering system is intimately tied to respiration, that interest when he entered Geelong College in Geelong, and an exceptional feature of pH control by this system is the Victoria, where he majored in biology and medicine. Carbon diox- In 1917, Burnet continued his education at Ormond ide is a normal product of metabolism. It is transported to the College of the University of Melbourne, from which he lungs, where it is eliminated from the body with every exhala- received his bachelor of science degree in 1922 and then, a tion. However, carbon dioxide in blood is converted to car- year later, his M. Burnet then took concurrent posi- bonic acid, which dissociates to produce the hydrogen tions as resident pathologist at the Royal Melbourne Hospital carbonate ion and the hydronium ion. If a chemical reaction or and as researcher at the University of Melbourne’s Hall the ingestion of an acidic material increases the hydronium ion Institute for Medical Research. In 1926, Burnet received a concentration in the blood, bicarbonate ion reacts with the Beit fellowship that permitted him to spend a year in residence added hydronium ion and is transformed into carbonic acid. The As a result the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide in work on viruses and bacteriophage that he carried out at Lister the blood increases. At the conclusion of his studies in England in 1928, ingested, the hydronium ion reacts with it, causing a decrease Burnet returned to Australia, where he became assistant direc- in the concentration of hydronium ion. He maintained his association with the dissociates to restore the hydronium ion consumed by the institute for the next thirty-seven years, becoming director base. In the same year, he was appointed professor of blood, so respiration is decreased and more gas is retained. To act as a buffer, a solution must maintain a nearly con- Burnet’s early research covered a somewhat diverse stant pH when either acid or base is added. For example, he worked on the must be made when a buffer is prepared: (1) Which pH is classification of viruses and bacteriophage, on the occurrence desired to maintain?

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Those who do typically say that they cannot do physically what they wish to do buy cheap hydroxyzine 10mg online. Those who deny being disabled generally see disability as associated with complete physical incapacity hydroxyzine 10 mg low price. As Jimmy Howard observed 25mg hydroxyzine with amex, Maybe I need a little more time to do things hydroxyzine 10 mg on-line, but I’ve never really used neither of those words buy hydroxyzine 25mg fast delivery, “disabled” or “handicapped. Things are a hindrance to me, but it’s not like I’m bedridden, that I can’t get up and do nothing. That’s what I consider being disabled—that if you want to go to the bathroom, you got to call somebody to help you or wipe your butt. About one-fifth of interviewees said they both are and aren’t disabled— recognizing the contradiction but explaining it by distinguishing the mind from the body. I’m able to do things other people wouldn’t even try to do, like going to school even though I’m almost forty- nine years old. Two feelings predominate: first, the need to live with uncertainty; and second, the intention to deal with whatever happens. Only two or three interviewees (admittedly a selected group) seemed to have given up, retreated from the world. Instead, some felt their health problem had jolted them out of complacency, stimulated them to be better people. Perceptions of Disability Self- Others’ Perception (%) Perception (%) Respondent’s mobility difficulty None 4 3 Minor 36 30 Moderate 60 50 Major 75 69 Respondent using mobility aid Cane or crutches 67 62 Walker 78 74 Manual wheelchair 82 81 Electric wheelchair 90 82 Scooter 94 91 somebody by showing that I can get through all this,” said Brianna Vicks. Now I’m working on just being able to stand and pivot—you change your priorities. It makes me nuts, and I don’t know what I’m gonna do about it sometimes. Her husband, Chet, who died from cancer, had been her helpmate and true partner. The other day I heard about somebody whose husband divorced her 82 / How People Feel about Their Difficulty Walking twenty minutes post-diagnosis. He had immigrated from Af- ghanistan and wore traditional garb—colorful crocheted cap and multilayered thigh-length cotton shirting—despite the biting December cold. The first time he had driven me, he had asked immediately if I was married, then said how happy he was to bring me home to my husband. He had driven me sev- eral times since, always asking the same question: “How is your husband? The driver told me about his brother, still in their homeland, who was “born paralyzed” by cerebral palsy and uses a wheelchair. At the most basic level, people may have difficulty performing routine daily activi- ties—dressing, getting to the bathroom, moving around home, preparing meals, housecleaning, shopping. They may rely on those they live with to assist with many tasks, including the most private. For many people, walking dif- ficulties affect how they see themselves—and how others see them—as 83 84 / At Home—with Family and Friends spouse, partner, parent, child, or friend. For some, relationships strengthen as the inevitable shifts and redefinitions affect everybody over time. Or, as for the taxi driver’s brother, social attitudes can also erect enormous barri- ers to the most fundamental human connections: gaining the intimacy and friendship of a spouse or partner or the joys and challenges of parenthood. Chapter 6 examines how walking difficulties affect routine daily life and relationships with family and friends. Certain tasks are almost always performed by individuals themselves (like bathing, dressing, going to the toilet), while some may be performed by another (like preparing meals, grocery shopping, cleaning house). When mobility problems intrude, alternative strategies become necessary. Meeting daily needs can demand calculated logistics: every aspect of life is planned. Fear creeps in—of falling, of being im- mobilized, trapped in a fire, burned while cooking, being alone. People with mobility problems are more likely to report difficulties with basic activities of daily living (ADLs) than other people. Nevertheless, even with major mobility difficulties, most people perform basic activities without any problem. So-called instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) present bigger challenges.

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