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By Q. Kaffu. Shepherd College.

Eastern equine encephalitis has a high mortality rate that can attain 75% while the Western the rate is about 10% discount flagyl 250mg visa. California encephalitis: Almost entirely affects children who usually have a history of recreational exposure in the woods prior to the onset of the disease proven 500 mg flagyl. Woodland mosquitoes are probably the vectors and small animals and birds do not appear to be involved discount 500mg flagyl visa. Although the disease may be quite severe 250 mg flagyl with visa, death is rare buy flagyl 250 mg online, and sequelae occur in only 15% of the children. Type 1 is usually associated with primary oropharyngeal lesions and causes acute encephalitis in adults. Type 2 is associated with genital lesions and causes disseminated infection in neonates and an aseptic meningitis in adults. Clinical symptoms and signs: Starts with fever and headaches Seizures are common Nuchal rigidity may be present Progressive mental deficits, confusion and personality changes Pathological findings: Intense meningitis Necrotic, inflammatory, or hemorrhagic lesions Predilection for frontal and temporal lobes. Intranuclear inclusions, Cowdry type A Perivascular inflammation Though treatable, the mortality rate is high (around 70%). The diagnosis of Herpes can be made rapidly by brain biopsy using an immunoperoxidase test. Pathologically there is a lymphocytic infiltrate in the ganglia of the spinal cranial nerve roots. Rarely, varicella-zoster may cause an acute encephalitis, particularly after involvement of cranial nerve roots. Pathologic features: Except for the unusual case in which there may be small focal areas of necrosis in the periventricular region, the gross appearance of the brain may be deceptively normal. Rarely, a fulminating case will show necrotizing lesions with parenchymal destruction. The cerebrum is affected by a granulomatous encephalitis with extensive subependymal calcification. Hydrocephalus, hydranencephaly, microcephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, or other developmental defects may be found. Clinical evidence of nervous system dysfunction has been reported to occur in approximately 30 - 40% of patients. The cells containing the majority of this virus appears to be of macrophage origin. However, as the disease progresses, atrophy develop as evidenced by a decrease in brain weight, prominent gaping of the cerebral sulci and dilatation of the ventricular system. There may be some attenuation of the white matter, particularly of the cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic pathology: Reactive microglial cells are present throughout the gray and white matter. Occasionally, they aggregate into cellular clusters with reactive astrocytes to form microglial nodules. These cells can be found in microglial nodules, perivascularly, or scattered through the brain parenchyma. Nonspecific white matter changes include foci of demyelination and vacuolar change. The calcification often involves the basal ganglia, but may spill into the centrum semiovale. In addition, they also may be found in the lower layers of the cortex and in the basal ganglia. These disorders are quite unusual and have been classified in the past as ‘infectious’, but more appropriately ‘transmissible’ disorders. This group of disorders is also widely classified as neurodegenerative disorders because the clinical and pathological features are more characteristic of neurodegenerative disorders rather than infectious disorders. The putative transmissible agent has been called a Prion (proteinaceous infectious particle). This agent differs radically from conventional infectious agents in that it appears to 41 be composed of protein only. It is insensitive to physical or chemical treatments that inactivate all known viruses. Formalin fixation does not destroy infectivity, but exposure to Clorox, formic acid or stringent autoclaving does. Two isoforms of the Prion protein (PrP) have been hypothesized: a normal, cellular form (PrP-C) and a modified infectious form (PrP-Sc). The incidence of Kuru has dropped precipitously since the suppression of ritual cannibalism.

The major types of connective tissue are connective tissue proper flagyl 200 mg mastercard, supportive tissue quality 250 mg flagyl, and fluid tissue buy discount flagyl 200 mg on line. These serve to hold organs and other tissues in place and buy discount flagyl 200mg, in the case of adipose tissue discount flagyl 400 mg without a prescription, isolate and store energy reserves. The matrix is the most abundant feature for loose tissue although adipose tissue does not have much extracellular matrix. Dense connective tissue proper is richer in fibers and may be regular, with fibers oriented in parallel as in ligaments and tendons, or irregular, with fibers oriented in several directions. Organ capsules (collagenous type) and walls of arteries (elastic type) contain dense irregular connective tissue. Fibrocartilage is tough because of extra collagen fibers and forms, among other things, the intervertebral discs. Elastic cartilage can stretch and recoil to its original shape because of its high content of elastic fibers. Bones are made of a rigid, mineralized matrix containing calcium salts, crystals, and osteocytes lodged in lacunae. Fluid tissue, for example blood and lymph, is characterized by a liquid matrix and no supporting fibers. A typical neuron displays a distinctive morphology: a large cell body branches out into short extensions called dendrites, which receive chemical signals from other neurons, and a long tail called an axon, which relays signals away from the cell to other neurons, muscles, or glands. Many axons are wrapped by a myelin sheath, a lipid derivative that acts as an insulator and speeds up the transmission of the action potential. Other cells in the nervous tissue, the neuroglia, include the astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells. Injured cells, mast cells, and resident macrophages release chemical signals that cause vasodilation and fluid leakage in the surrounding tissue. The repair phase includes blood clotting, followed by regeneration of tissue as fibroblasts deposit collagen. In adults, new connective tissue cells originate from the regulate ions, regulate the uptake and/or breakdown of ________. Describe how the structure of individual cells and is taken regularly by individuals with a heart condition. Why does an injury to cartilage, especially hyaline cartilage, heal much more slowly than a bone fracture? As an individual ages, a constellation of symptoms begins the decline to the point where an individual’s 38. They are all contracting at different rates; some factors that have a role in factors leading to the fast, some slow. Or do you think about the fact that the skin belongs to one of the body’s most essential and dynamic systems: the integumentary system? The integumentary system refers to the skin and its accessory structures, and it is responsible for much more than simply lending to your outward appearance. As such, the skin protects your inner organs and it is in need of daily care and protection to maintain its health. This chapter will introduce the structure and functions of the integumentary system, as well as some of the diseases, disorders, and injuries that can affect this system. The skin and its accessory structures make up the integumentary system, which provides the body with overall protection. The skin is made of multiple layers of cells and tissues, which are held to underlying structures by connective tissue (Figure 5. It also has numerous sensory, and autonomic and sympathetic nerve fibers ensuring communication to and from the brain. Beneath the dermis lies the hypodermis, which is composed mainly of loose connective and fatty tissues. It has a fifth layer, called the stratum lucidum, located between the stratum corneum and the stratum granulosum (Figure 5. Keratin is an intracellular fibrous protein that gives hair, nails, and skin their hardness and water-resistant properties. The keratinocytes in the stratum corneum are dead and regularly slough away, being replaced by cells from the deeper layers (Figure 5.

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Bile is not primarily a digestive juice because it contains no enzyme but it helps in the digestion of fats discount 400mg flagyl with mastercard. They are: 1) Pancreatin: converts carbohydrates into simple sugars like amylase glucose buy generic flagyl 200mg online, fructose and galactose cheap flagyl 400mg without a prescription. This trypsinogen is converted into active trypsin by action of enterokinase which is secreted in the small intestine buy flagyl 400 mg with visa. The final product of digestion of the carbohydrates is glucose while the proteins are amino acids and fats are fatty acids and glycerol cheap flagyl 400 mg without prescription. Large Intestine The large intestine is as the name implies has the larger diameter than the small intestine. Rectum and anal canal: The descending colon of large intestine opens into last part, the rectum and anal canal. The narrow portion of the distal part of the large intestine is called the anal canal, which leads to the outside through an opening called the anus. Absorption of Food: Absorption is the process by which water, minerals, vitamins and end products of digestion are absorbed through the mucosa of alimentary canal (especially the small intestines) into blood stream either directly or via lymphatic vessels. The main absorption occurs in small intestines especially in the lower (ileum) part, the upper part of the small intestine is mainly associated with the process of digestion. Both monosaccharide and amino acids are absorbed by a positive pressure gradient between the intestinal content and the blood as well as by an active process involving enzymatic reactions and transported in the blood stream to the liver via the hepatic portal system. The excess amount of glucose is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver, when need arises glycogen is converted into glucose and is utilized by the body. Large quantities of water are however absorbed from the large intestine and the fluid content of the small intestine are converted into the pasty consistency and ejected through the opening called the anus. Movements of the gastro intestinal tract: Deglutition is the process by which the masticated food is transported across the pharynx and reaches the stomach. After being in the stomach for 3 or 4 hours the pyloric sphincter opens pushing the food into the duodenum. They are; 1) Pendular Movement: these movements are induced by contractions of the circular and longitudinal muscles of the intestine. In the higher animals, and man the gaseous exchange between the tissues and environment is termed as Internal or tissue respiration. The exchange of gases between the body and the environment­taking place in the lungs is termed as external respiration. Inspiration is an active muscular contraction while expiration is merely a passive act of the relaxation of respiratory muscles. Structure of respiratory system: The respiratory system is responsible for taking in oxygen and giving off carbon­di­oxide and water. The two lungs, which are the principal organs of the respiratory system, are situated in the upper part of the thoracic cage. The pharynx is a tube approximately 12cm in length, which is a common opening for both diges­ tive and respiratory system. It connects the oral cavity to the oesophagus (food tube) and the nasal cavity to the larynx and wind pipe. The epiglottis folds down over the opening like a trap door while food or liquid is being swal­ lowed, it prevents the entry of foreign substances into the respiratory passage ways. The closure of epiglottis, when we swallow, is a reflex action and can be interfered with, if one attempts to talk and swallow at the same time. It is the vocal cords inside the box, which by its coming together and going away from one another produces different sounds. The trachea branches at its lower end into the right and left bronchi which enters the lungs, within the lungs those passage ways repeatedly divide, forming microscopic tubes called bronchioles. Each bronchiole ends with several clusters of microscopic elastic air sacs called alveoli, which are the functional units of lungs. The right lungs have three lobes­upper, middle and lower, and the left lung has two lobes­ upper and lower. Respiration may be defined as the mechanical process of breathing in and out, a function which involves both the respiratory system and muscles of the respiration. Exhalation – which refers to the expulsion of air from the alveoli Inhalation The diaphragm when relaxed is a flattened dome shape structure pointing upwards to the lungs.

At each of these checkpoints generic flagyl 250mg line, different varieties of molecules provide the stop or go signals purchase flagyl 200 mg on line, depending on certain conditions within the cell buy 400 mg flagyl. By interacting with many additional molecules discount 400 mg flagyl with mastercard, these triggers push the cell cycle forward unless prevented from doing so by “stop” signals buy flagyl 250mg fast delivery, if for some reason the cell is not ready. Even during mitosis, a crucial stop2 and go checkpoint in metaphase ensures that the cell is fully prepared to complete cell division. The metaphase checkpoint ensures that all sister chromatids are properly attached to their respective microtubules and lined up at the metaphase plate before the signal is given to separate them during anaphase. These control molecules determine whether or not the cell is prepared to move into the following stage. If the abnormal cells continue to divide unstopped, they can damage the tissues around them, spread to other parts of the body, and eventually result in death. In healthy cells, the tight regulation mechanisms of the cell cycle prevent this from happening, while failures of cell cycle control can cause unwanted and excessive cell division. Failures of control may be caused by inherited genetic abnormalities that compromise the function of certain “stop” and “go” signals. The process of a cell escaping its normal control system and becoming cancerous may actually happen throughout the body quite frequently. Fortunately, certain cells of the immune system are capable of recognizing cells that have become cancerous and destroying them. If the resulting tumor does not pose a threat to surrounding tissues, it is said to be benign and can usually be easily removed. Cancer Arises from Homeostatic Imbalances Cancer is an extremely complex condition, capable of arising from a wide variety of genetic and environmental causes. Cell cycle control is an example of a homeostatic mechanism that maintains proper cell function and health. While progressing through the phases of the cell cycle, a large variety of intracellular molecules provide stop and go signals to regulate movement forward to the next phase. These signals are maintained in an intricate balance so that the cell only proceeds to the next phase when it is ready. Cruise control will continually apply just the right amount of acceleration to maintain a desired speed, unless the driver hits the brakes, in which case the car will slow down. Similarly, the cell includes molecular messengers, such as cyclins, that push the cell forward in its cycle. In addition to cyclins, a class of proteins that are encoded by genes called proto-oncogenes provide important signals that regulate the cell cycle and move it forward. In contrast, a second class of genes known as tumor suppressor genes sends stop signals during a cell cycle. Some tumor suppressor proteins also signal a sufficient surrounding cellular density, which indicates that the cell need not presently divide. The latter function is uniquely important in preventing tumor growth: normal cells exhibit a phenomenon called “contact inhibition;” thus, extensive cellular contact with neighboring cells causes a signal that stops further cell division. These two contrasting classes of genes, proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, are like the accelerator and brake pedal of the cell’s own “cruise control system,” respectively. Generally speaking, there are two ways that the cell’s cruise control can lose control: a malfunctioning (overactive) accelerator, or a malfunctioning (underactive) brake. When compromised through a mutation, or otherwise altered, proto-oncogenes can be converted to oncogenes, which produce oncoproteins that push a cell forward in its cycle and stimulate cell division even when it is undesirable to do so. On the other hand, a dysfunctional tumor suppressor gene may fail to provide the cell with a necessary stop signal, also resulting in unwanted cell division and proliferation. A delicate homeostatic balance between the many proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes delicately controls the cell cycle and ensures that only healthy cells replicate. Therefore, a disruption of this homeostatic balance can cause aberrant cell division and cancerous growths. Throughout development and adulthood, the process of cellular differentiation leads cells to assume their final morphology and physiology. Differentiation is the process by which unspecialized cells become specialized to carry out distinct functions.

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